HomeWeather NewsWeekly Climate and Energy News Roundup #547 – Watts Up With That?

Weekly Climate and Energy News Roundup #547 – Watts Up With That?

The Week That Was: 2023-04-08 (April 8, 2023)
Brought to You by SEPP (
The Science and Environmental Policy Project

Quote of the Week: “It’s amazing how much panic one honest man can spread among a multitude of hypocrites.” ― Thomas Sowell

Number of the Week: 50,000 times


By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

Scope: The This Week section will be brief and focus on two major issues. One issue is the beginning of an extremely simplified explanation of the van Wijngaarden and Happer paper “Atmosphere and Greenhouse Gas Primer.” Last week’s TWTW reproduced the abstract.

The second issue is the impracticality of the Western political fad of Net Zero. There have been a number of analyses showing that the grid energy storage requirements will be enormous and expensive. On October 22, 2022, TWTW reported on the tremendous quantity of minerals needed for Net Zero as calculated by Simon Michaux of the Geological Survey of Finland. In a presentation, former mining executive Mark Mills discusses the impracticality of extracting the minerals required.

Another issue are the new tricks being used by the modeling crowd. Banning “ozone depleting chemicals” is not working. These chemicals are increasing, yet ozone remains roughly constant. Now the latest trick is claiming that these extremely rare (in the atmosphere) chemicals are causing dangerous Arctic warming.


Simplified Atmosphere Much of the logic in the van Wijngaarden and Happer paper (“Atmosphere and Greenhouse Gas Primer”) is very mathematical. Thus, it is beyond the scope of TWTW. What follows is a simplified version of the work.  In the last TWTW, the abstract was reproduced along with a brief description of the US standardized atmosphere.

In developing a simple model to describe the different ways in which the surface loses heat to space, van Wijngaarden and Happer use a two-part atmosphere divided by the Tropopause where remaining water vapor freezes out. For mid-latitudes, the altitude of the Tropopause is about 11 km (36,000 feet). The introduction of the work states: [Boldface added]

“Worldwide industrialization and the associated combustion of fossil fuels have increased the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) since 1750. These gases along with nitrous oxide (N2O) and assorted lesser players like halocarbon refrigerants are examples of “greenhouse gases”. It should be noted that by far the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is water vapor. There is little that one can do about water vapor on our watery planet Earth, with 70% of its surface covered by oceans.

“Greenhouse gases were first discovered by John Tyndall in the course of brilliant experimental work in the 1850’s. Tyndall recognized that greenhouse gases warm Earth’s surface. Some 50 years later Svante Arrhenius made the first theoretical estimates of how much surface warming would result if atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide were doubled. The atmosphere and oceans are so complicated that to this day no one knows what the exact warming will be. But basic physics and the geological record indicate that the warming will be small and probably good for life on Earth. The additional carbon dioxide of the past century has already benefitted agriculture, forestry, and photosynthetic life in general. Both Tyndall and Arrhenius thought that greenhouse warming was a good thing.”

Here it is important to note that the work by Svante Arrhenius that is cited is his 1908 paper in which he corrected the significant overestimates of the greenhouse effect made ten years earlier. In the earlier work, he suggested that a doubling of carbon dioxide may lead to a warming of 5°C (9°F) which may be sufficient to melt the glaciation of the last major Ice Age. Unfortunately, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its followers continue to cite the earlier work which Arrhenius realized was incorrect speculation.

Van Wijngaarden and Happer then go into the basic physics of heat transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere. Molecules have kinetic energy because of their velocity, but also internal energy due to vibration and rotation (energy of excitation).  At any given temperature, there are “excited” molecules that can give up their excess energy by emitting infrared radiation (IR), or by collisions, adding to molecular motion.  Molecules typically have a billion collisions per second. They can also absorb energy via collisions, and be “kicked” into excited states that can radiate IR.    In fact, about 80% of the IR that goes to space comes from this process occurring at high altitude; only about 20% of the IR to space passes through the atmosphere unaffected by greenhouse gases. 

The surface emits a smooth blackbody spectrum of IR, but the IR to space is a spectrum with various “colors” of IR reduced in intensity. Overall, the amount of IR emitted to space is 40% less than the amount of IR emitted by the surface. The authors explain how the IR emission by the surface can be calculated with the equation developed by Ludwig Boltzmann and his thesis advisor Joseph Stefan. (See also Howard Hayden’s papers on Basic Climate Physics, 2022). The majority of the van Wijngaarden-Happer paper is concerned with using high-resolution spectral data to determine how the greenhouse gases determine the spectrum of IR emitted to space.

Before getting into Greenhouse Gases, the basic section on Earth’s Atmosphere concludes:

In summary heat transport by thermal radiation in Earth’s atmosphere is orders of magnitude faster than heat transfer by molecular diffusion. Heat transfer by conduction in air (that is, by molecular diffusion) is so small that it is normally irrelevant compared to heat transfer by radiation or heat transport by convection. Heat convection by moist air, which can carry lots of latent heat, as well as sensible heat, is especially important.

The simplified atmosphere presented by van Wijngaarden and Happer is more complex than the Basic Climate Physics presented by Hayden in that Hayden does not go into complexity of convection or go into describing the complex interactions of greenhouse gases. Thus, Hayden’s work is easier to describe in TWTW and easier to grasp for the general reader. Next week, TWTW will discuss more of the key parts of the van Wijngaarden and Happer paper. See link under Challenging the Orthodoxy and


Technological Breakthroughs Possible? Previously, TWTW has discussed the 1,000-page plus report by Simon P. Michaux of the Geological Survey of Finland laboriously estimating the tremendous resources needed to meet the current political fad of “Net Zero” such as the lack of global reserves of nickel and lithium.

Mark Mills was an experimental physicist and a development engineer at Bell Northern Research (Canada’s Bell Labs) and he worked on microprocessors, fiber optics, and missile guidance. He is a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute commenting on a variety of energy-economic issues. Earlier he was an executive of a uranium mining and refining company. In discussing the presentation by Mills to the Norwegian SKAGEN Funds New Years Conference, John Robson wrote:

“Engineers are rarely utopians. From professional experience, or the intuitive grasp that helped draw them into the profession in the first place, they understand that before deciding what to do, you have to figure out how to do it, to make sure it’s possible given the inherent trade-offs embedded in reality. For instance, the maxim ‘strong, light and cheap – pick any two’.”

Here is the dilemma many utopians avoid, political or not. To achieve Net Zero, vast amounts of minerals are needed. These require massive expansion of the extraction industry – mining. Mining is as old as civilization. Modern strip mining often requires massive earth moving, which does not readily lend itself to breakthroughs in technology. Those who are railing against the extraction of oil, gas, and coal have no idea of the extensive strip mining required for wind and solar, and have no concept of the thousands of square miles (square kilometers) of strip mining needed to extract and process the minerals needed for a rapid expansion of these industries.

Mark Mills the co-author of The Bottomless Well: The Twilight of Fuel, the Virtue of Waste, and Why We Will Never Run Out of Energy gives a good indication of what may be required. Among the issues he discusses are: How do we build the machines to capture “free wind and solar? How much more mining is required to produce these machines? Increases in required metals is many times – 7 times to 70 times – not a minor percentage. About 100 gigatons per year? It takes about 16 years to start a new mine. China has chosen to be the world’s largest mineral refiner, more dominant than OPEC.

Photos and essays on “green energy” mining are also presented. For example:

“The production of lithium through evaporation ponds uses a lot of water – around 21 million litres per day. Approximately 2.2 million litres of water are needed to produce one ton of lithium.”

“The growing interest in lithium has seen the world’s largest-known reserves increase significantly. There are around 80 million tonnes of identified reserves globally as of 2019, according to the US Geological Survey (USGS).

“After South America (chiefly Bolivia, Chile and Argentina) the next biggest lithium-producing country is the United States, followed closely by Australia and China.”

Salar de Atacama [Chile] “The salt flat encompasses 3,000 km2 (1,200 sq mi) is about 100 km (62 mi) long and 80 km (50 mi) wide, which makes it the third largest in the world.”

“… [in] 2017 [it] provided about 36% of the world’s lithium carbonate supply,”

Regarding mining in the Congo, it is useful to realize that the movement to regulate child labor started in Great Britain in 1802 in an effort to control the apprenticeship of poor children to cotton-mill owners. By the mid-1800 effective measures were being taken. See links under Challenging the Orthodoxy, Questioning Green Elsewhere,, and


Changes in Threat? The 1987 Montreal Protocol finalized a global agreement on phasing out the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances. Foolishly, the US Senate ratified the agreement in 1988, making it the law of the land. According to the US Department of State:

“With full implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that Americans born between 1890 and 2100 are expected to avoid 443 million cases of skin cancer, approximately 2.3 million skin cancer deaths, and more than 63 million cases of cataracts, with even greater benefits worldwide. The Montreal Protocol’s Scientific Assessment Panel estimates that with implementation of the Montreal Protocol we can expect near complete recovery of the ozone layer by the middle of the 21st century.”

The ozone depleting substances (ODS) are not coming down in the atmosphere and the atmosphere shows little or no ill effects. The ozone layer (O3) is formed by solar ultraviolet radiation interacting with molecular oxygen (O2) roughly between 6 (10km) to 30 miles (48 km) above the earths surface. Since the US has no treaty on greenhouse gases, there is a significant political effort to expand the ozone treaty to greenhouse gases. Thus, we are seeing modeling studies claiming that ODSs are causing “global warming” such as the one with an abstract stating:

“Analyzing all-but-one-forcing, 20-member ensembles of historical simulations with a state-of-the-art Earth System Model, we find that over the 1955–2005 period ODSs are responsible for 30% of global warming, 37% of Arctic warming, and 33% of summertime Arctic sea ice loss.”

The Earth System Model fails when tested against atmospheric temperatures trends, but it must be accepted on Arctic warming with a one percentage point accuracy? See links under Defending the Orthodoxy – Bandwagon Science and,radiation%20reaching%20the%20Earth’s%20surface.



SEPP is conducting its annual vote for the recipient of the coveted trophy, The Jackson, a lump of coal. Readers are asked to nominate and vote for who they think is most deserving. Senators Schumer and Manchin won in 2022.

The voting will close on June 30. Please send your nominee and a brief reason why the person is qualified for the honor to The awardee will be announced at the annual meeting of the Doctors for Disaster Preparedness on July 7 to 9.


Number of the Week: 50,000 times: The Center for Health Security for Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Health states:

Cyanide is a naturally occurring chemical, found in many plants, that has been used in conventional warfare and poisoning for more than two millennia. It is highly lethal, whether inhaled as a gas, ingested in solid form, or absorbed through topical exposure. Two notable incidents in recent history include the Jonestown Massacre in 1978 and the Tylenol poisonings in 1982, which highlight the lethality of this poison. Despite its historical use as a chemical warfare agent, the most common cause of cyanide poisoning is smoke inhalation from fires.

In discussing EPA proposed safety margins for “forever chemicals” PFOA and PFOC, in Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) Susan Goldhaber environmental toxicologist writes in the American Council on Science and Health:

“EPA proposed an MCL of 4 parts per trillion (4 ppt) for PFOA and PFOS. This is the lowest level detectable in drinking water – analytical methods cannot find these chemicals below 4 ppt.

“For comparison purposes, the MCL for cyanide, which everybody recognizes is an extremely toxic chemical, is 0.2 parts per million (ppm) – equivalent to 200,000 ppt. Since the MCLs are based on health, this translates to PFOA/PFOS being 50,000 times more toxic than cyanide, which should strike any scientist as somewhat absurd.” It appears that sections of the EPA are competing for the title “Fantasyland Washington.” See links under Science, Policy, and Evidence and EPA and other Regulators on the March. [If a chemical lasts forever, it does not react chemically with anything—including the human body. How, then, can it be toxic?] See links under Challenging the Orthodoxy and,or%20absorbed%20through%20topical%20exposure.


Antibiotics: The Perfect Storm, A Retrospective

By David Shlaes, ACSH, Mar 29, 2023

[SEPP Comment: Tired of Google censorship.]

Suppressing Scientific Inquiry

Swiss Politician Calls On Making Climate Denial A “Criminal Offence”…Obstructs “Effective Measures”!

By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Apr 2, 2023

[SEPP Comment: Green open-mindedness?]

Challenging the Orthodoxy — NIPCC

Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science

Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), 2013


Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts

Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), 2014


Climate Change Reconsidered II: Fossil Fuels

By Multiple Authors, Bezdek, Idso, Legates, and Singer eds., Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change, April 2019

Download with no charge:

Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming

The NIPCC Report on the Scientific Consensus

By Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), Nov 23, 2015

Download with no charge:

Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate

S. Fred Singer, Editor, NIPCC, 2008

Global Sea-Level Rise: An Evaluation of the Data

By Craig D. Idso, David Legates, and S. Fred Singer, Heartland Policy Brief, May 20, 2019

Challenging the Orthodoxy

Atmosphere and Greenhouse Gas Primer

By W. A. van Wijngaarden (1) and W. Happer, Department of Physics and Astronomy (2), (1) York University, Canada & (2) Department of Physics, Princeton University, USA, March 3, 2023

Where are the minerals of tomorrowyear?

By John Robson, Climate Discussion Nexus, Apr 5, 2023

Link to: The energy transition delusion: inescapable mineral realities

By Mark Mills, SKAGEN Funds New Years Conference Jan 11, 2023

Assessment of the Extra Capacity Required of Alternative Energy Electrical Power Systems to Completely Replace Fossil Fuels

By Simon P. Michaux, Geological Survey of Finland, Aug 20, 2021

Water Vapor, Clouds Are The Real Direct Masters Controlling Our Climate

Clouds reduce the energy at the surface, i.e. they currently cool the climate.

The DIY way to demystify “greenhouse gas” claims, Part 6

By Fred F. Mueller, Posted by P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Mar 31, 2023

“Why is the strongest ‘greenhouse gas’ classified as not being a ‘real’ greenhouse gas?”

Tornadoes, Climate Change, and the Media

By Anthony Watts, American Thinker, Apr 7, 2023

Bill Ponton’s “Reality Check” On UK Wind Power: The Issue Of Energy Storage

By Francis Menton, Manhattan Contrarian, Apr 3, 2023

“If you start trying to shift the coal and nuclear production in the UK to wind, and if you then consider major losses from trying to store power for up to a year before use, you can multiply that $3 trillion by a factor of 2 or 3 or maybe 4.  Whatever.

“As stated many times at this site, this will never happen.  The only question is how disastrous the crash will be when it all falls apart.”

Important New Report Explores The Futility Of Wind Power

By Francis Menton, Manhattan Contrarian, Apr 1, 2023

The Cost of Increasing Wind Power Capacity: A Reality Check

By Bill Ponton, Princeton Venture Advisory, March 2023

“Ponton’s Report follows and builds on prior work of Roger Andrews and Ken Gregory that has previously been featured at this site.  The idea of each of these researchers has been to use publicly available data from some jurisdiction as to electricity consumption, and as to electricity generation from each source — natural gas, nuclear, wind, solar, coal, hydro, etc. — to build a spreadsheet that can then be manipulated to investigate what happens on changing various assumptions going forward. n 2018,”

History and Human Biology Argue for Warmth, not Cold

By Vijay Jayaraj, CO2 Coalition, Apr 6, 2023

Why You Should Ignore The Latest IPCC Climate Report

By Joseph D’Aleo, ICECAP, Apr 2, 2023

“For the last 35 years, the IPCC has developed this mandate into an industry of perpetual reporting on a six-year cycle designed to instill constant fear of human-caused global warming.”

The IPCC is Promoting a Left-Wing Political Agenda Masquerading as ‘Science’

By Chris Morrison, The Daily Sceptic, April 3, 2023

[SEPP Comment: Once the main report of the physical science is complete, the IPCC undermines its scientific integrity with subsequent reports, often inserting fabricated evidence. The 2000-year hockey stick in the Summary for Policymakers is a classic example.]

Challenging the Orthodoxy – RIP

Nigel Lawson (1932-2023)

Press Release, The Global Warming Policy Foundation, Apr 4, 2023

Defending the Orthodoxy

Advancing NASA’s Climate Strategy

By Staff, NASA, 2023 [H/t William Readdy]

“To help assess and advance NASA’s climate strategy, a Climate Strategy Working Group (CSWG) was created and now falls under the guidance of the Office of the Chief Scientist. The CSWG found:”

[SEPP Comment: Will the chief scientist discover atmospheric temperature trends from satellite measurements or ignore them?]

Defending the Orthodoxy – Bandwagon Science

Ozone-depleting substances play bigger role in global warming than previously thought

By David Whitehouse, Net Zero Watch, Apr 6, 2023

Link to paper: Large Contribution of Ozone-Depleting Substances to Global and Arctic Warming in the Late 20th Century

By M. Sigmond, et al, Geophysical Research Letters, Mar 2, 2023

Leading ozone scientist says more climate surprises likely

By Kelly MacNamara, Paris (AFP) March 21, 2023

“It’s a great time to be a climate scientist, but on the other hand, it seems to me that every year something important and scary is happening.”

[SEPP Comment: From a professor at MIT?]

Ozone-depleting CFCs hit record despite ban: study

By Linnea Pedersen, AFP, Apr 3, 2023

British Climate Activist Responds To Ponton’s UK Wind Power “Reality Check”

By Francis Menton, Manhattan Contrarian, Apr 6, 2023

Hotter weather not diminishing runoff and river discharge as expected

Press Release, by European Space Agency, Apr 4, 2023

[SEPP Comment: Expected by whom?]

New data raises concerns over global sea level: study

By Joe Jacquez, The Hill, Apr 6, 2023

Link to paper: Rapid, buoyancy-driven ice-sheet retreat of hundreds of metres per day

By Christine Batchelor, et al, Nature, Apr 5, 2023

From the abstract on the satellite record: “The spacing of the ridges shows that pulses of rapid grounding-line retreat, at rates ranging from 55 to 610 m day, occurred across low-gradient (±1°) ice-sheet beds during the last deglaciation.”

[SEPP Comment; The last deglaciation took thousands of years. Is there reason for concern?]

Questioning the Orthodoxy

ESG tentacles could strangle growth in ASEAN countries

By Vijay Jayaraj, BizPac Review, Mar 30, 2023

The Climate Madness Of 2023

Editorial Board, I & I, Apr 5, 2023

The IPCC’s (remaining) credibility got blown away in a tropical cyclone

By John Robson, Climate Discussion Nexus, Apr 5, 2023

“This blunder was a toxic mix of dishonesty and carelessness amplified by the fact that the IPCC is now dominated by activists with axes to grind. Unless they retract these errors, kick out the clowns responsible and notify world leaders of the correction, you are entirely justified in assuming that any and all parts of IPCC reports are likewise unreliable.”

The great renewables rip-off continues

Consumers face huge price rises for green power

Press Release, Net Zero Watch, Apr 6, 2023

“For years, ministers and civil servants have been telling the public that renewables are cheap. Make no mistake, they have been engaged in a cynical deception of the British public.”

Ugh, spring, we’re doomed

By John Robson, Climate Discussion Nexus, Apr 5, 2023

“Arguably an early spring beats endless winter? Yup. “Early emergence gives them extra time to eat, which lets them get fatter and helps them produce more offspring.” So what seems to be the problem?”

ChatGPT Says California Is Experiencing a Drought

By Tony Heller, His Blog, Apr 7, 2023

Change in US Administrations

Biden nominee wants to hijack little-known agency to ram through climate agenda

Carlson failed to report her consulting work with a dark money-fueled climate law firm on a Transportation Department recusal filing

By Thomas Catenacci, Fox News, April 4, 2023

[SEPP Comment: No conflict of interest. She is doing exactly what she is interested in doing.]

Problems in the Orthodoxy

The Earth’s Green Future is Forke

By Planning Engineer (Russ Schussler), Climate Etc. April 3, 2023

[SEPP Comment: China, South Asia, and Africa will go their own way. How should the UN and its followers force China to change?]

Seeking a Common Ground

Restoring Trust in Government by Using IQA

By William Kovacs, His Blog, April 2023 [H/t Paul Driessen]

Science, Policy, and Evidence

Economic Implications of a Phased-in EV Mandate in Canada

By Ross McKitrick, His Blog, Apr 6, 2023

Economic Implications of a Phased-in EV Mandate in Canada

Working paper by Ross McKitrick, Ideas, 2023

EPA Scientifically Challenged PFAS Numbers

By Susan Goldhaber, ACSH, Mar 28, 2023

Measurement Issues — Surface

#CoolCllimateData: Rutgers Snow Lab

By John Robson, Climate Discussion Nexus, Apr 5, 2023

Measurement Issues — Atmosphere

UAH Global Temperature Update for March, 2023: +0.20 deg. C

By Roy Spencer, His Blog, April 3, 2023

“The linear warming trend since January, 1979 remains at +0.13 C/decade (+0.11 C/decade over the global-averaged oceans, and +0.18 C/decade over global-averaged land).”

Global Temperature Report, March 2023

By Staff, Earth System Science Center, The University of Alabama in Huntsville




The ability to identify Category 4 and Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes with mid-20th-century tools

By John Robson, Climate Discussion Nexus, Apr 5, 2023

From the CO2Science Archive:

Changing Weather

Record March Cold Over the Western U.S. and Northern Plains

By Cliff Mass, Weather Blog, Apr 4, 2023

“My advice: don’t think about buying tomato plants in April.”

Biden administration announces $343 million for tribal water resources, Colorado River conservation

By Sharon Udasin, The Hill, Apr 6, 2023

A Dry Winter for Washington State But Not For the Rest of the West Coast: But Change is Coming!

By Cliff Mass, Weather Blog, Apr 6, 2023

California snowpack climbs to all-time high, more winter weather on the way

By Sharon Udasin, The Hill, Mar 31, 2023

Lake Mead’s level jumps 3 feet — but hope may be short-lived

By Zack Budryk, The Hill, Apr 6, 2023

Largest Snowstorm On Record At Casper, Wyoming

By Tony Heller, His Blog, Apr 6, 2023

Changing Climate

Scientists Say A 6°C Warmer-Than-Today Arctic Is ‘Optimal’ For Thermophile Species

By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Apr 6, 2023

Link to latest paper: From everywhere all at once: Several colonization routes available to Svalbard in the early Holocene

By Viktorie Brožová, et al., Ecology and Evolution, 2023

Changing Seas

Bellies Full of Coral

By Jennifer Marohasy, Her Blog, April 5, 2023

“A Bumphead parrot fish will feed on about 5 tonnes of live coral in a single year. They often hang around in groups of about 30, with that one cluster all up consuming more coral than the entire live export coral trade takes each year from the Great Barrier Reef (100 tonnes versus 150 tonnes). In short, these fish have bellies full of coral – lots of coral.”

“We live in an age that tends to promote empathy for victims above all else, so I am surprised there are not stories cancelling Parrot fish.”

[SEPP Comment: Many photos.]

Seaweed bloom reaches record size: ‘Major beaching events are inevitable’

By Alix Martichoux, The Hill, Apr 3, 2023

[SEPP Comment; The new fear, chocking on seaweed? Peak season is usually in June or July.]

New Study: Sea Levels Have Receded Over Last 1500 Years, Including Since 1800s, Along India’s Coasts

New Study: Sea Levels Have Receded Over Last 1500 Years, Including Since 1800s, Along India’s Coasts

By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Apr 3, 2023

Link to paper: Late Holocene morphodynamic evolution of Thamirabarani delta and Thoothukudi tombolo in South India: insights from integrated analysis of early cartographic documents and satellite images

By Ekta Gupta & Mandyam Bhoolokam Rajani, Journal of Coastal Conservation, Jan 24, 2023

[SEPP Comment: May have been caused by sedimentation.]

Changing Cryosphere – Land / Sea Ice

Greenland Temperature Updates

By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Apr 7, 2023

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